Glossary – Snowsports

Mank? Refrozen Death Cookies? Crud—as opposed to “Chop”? Readers have been writing in over the years to say that a Glossary could be pretty useful. We agree, and we’ve finally gotten around to it. (Special shout out to all of our readers whose primary language isn’t English — Thank You for putting up with us, and for your polite suggestions to produce a Glossary.)

So in the interest of speaking the same language and getting on the same page, here are some terms we use to describe the snow conditions we test in, some general skiing styles, and a few important elements of ski and snowboard design.

In what follows, we’re just getting the ball rolling—this is the start of a growing list that we’ll be updating. We’d love to have you contribute, so in the Comments Section below, please suggest other terms you’d like us to define—or offer your own terms and definitions. We’ll move some of those suggestions into the Glossary itself, and the end result will hopefully be a list of terms that are pretty useful, sometimes pretty funny, and sometimes worth debating.

Finally, if you happen to have a great photo that illustrates some of the conditions we’re talking about, send it to us (, and we’ll include it in the Glossary.

Take a look…

Snow / Conditions

Chop / Deep Chop: Fresh powder after it’s been skied and cut up. Shallow chop (3-5” of tracked-out snow), isn’t much to contend with when the snow is light and fresh. But late in the day after a big storm, blasting through trenches and 12-24” deep pockets of powder can really test a ski’s stability—and your leg strength.

Crud / Mank: First you have untracked powder. Then you have fresh snow that gets chopped up, and after that chopped-up snow consolidates, gets warmed by the sun, and then re-freezes overnight, you have “crud.” Heavy, grabby, often hard & set-up clumps of snow. The heavier and wetter that “crud” gets, the more inclined we are to call it “mank”. If that set-up snow is colder & drier, that’s “crud”.

(And if it’s late in the season and you’re dealing with warm, slushy days and below-freezing nights, a similar freeze-thaw cycle can produce the dreaded “Coral Reef” or “Death Cookies.”)

Glossary of Skiing Terms, Blister Gear Review
Blister Reviewer Paul Forward. (photo by Cy Whitling)

Coral Reef / Re-frozen Conditions: Have you ever seen a coral reef? Have you ever skied re-frozen snow that looks like (and sort of feels like) a coral reef? It’s brutal, and no ski handles it well. Death Cookies, Frozen Popcorn, Sh!t F$*@k snow, whatever you call it, if you spend a lot of time skiing it, expect to invest in a good physical therapist.

Crust / Breakable Crust: Snow that has a layer of crust on top (often from 1-5″ / 2.5-12.5 cm thick), then a softer layer below it. If that crust is super solid, it’s typically easier to deal with—you just ski along the firm surface. If that crust isn’t that solid, you have breakable crust, and the skiing will be pretty interesting / more-or-less painful.

Frozen Chicken Heads: Rock-hard, frozen clumps that stick up off the snow a couple of inches. They’re usually sitting on old, firm, wind-affected snow.

Groomers: Roughed-Up: We also call them “end-of-the-day” groomers, when the groomed runs have been beaten up and the corduroy is gone. If a bit of snow fell the night before, you might have tons of mini-moguls dotting the run, little soft piles formed by wind & skiers making their turns.

Groomers: Smooth & Consistent: Nice, fresh corduroy; groomers that haven’t been roughed-up by skiers pushing snow around as they skid their turns. Depending on your preferences, on a nice pair of frontside skis, this can rank up there with the pleasure of skiing deep pow.

Groomers: Bulletproof: Rock hard Ice. Good luck getting your ski edges to dig in and bite. If you’re not on race skis, the best you can probably hope for is a predictable, controlled skid.

Mashed Potatoes: See “mank.” Heavier, wetter, gloppy, warm snow that’s been turned up / tracked out. Once that snow starts to get really wet and heavy and setup, it stops being mashed potatoes and moves into the “Cement” realm.

Sastrugi: Those beautiful wind-erosion patterns that form in firm, wind-affected snow. Nice to look at, terrible to ski through.

Slush Bumps: Also wonderful. Slush bumps rank just after (1) deep pow, (2) unexpected stashes of wind-deposited snow (3) smooth, creamy, wind-buff, and just ahead of or just after perfect corduroy.

Upside-Down Snow: Snow that is heavier on the surface, then drier and lighter below. “Punchy” snow.

Variable Conditions: A mix of firm and soft snow. Could be a firm, maybe wind-scoured base with some looser soft snow sitting on top, or could be a mix of chunky, icy stuff and softer, gloppy snow.

Glossary of Skiing Terms, Blister Gear Review
Blister Reviewer Will Brown. (photo by David Spiegel)

Variable Terrain (related to variable conditions): When downed trees, large boulders, etc., are the primary cause of the significant undulations / variations in the snow surface.

Wind-Deposited / Chalk: Light, denser pow (and if you’re lucky, deep pow) that got blown over from some other section of the mountain to create a nice little pow stash. Wind-deposited pow can turn a mostly firm day into a surprise mini-pow day if you find the right run / aspect where the snow’s collecting.

Wind-Scoured: Snow that’s been stripped thin and firm by the wind. It’s not necessarily icy snow (it can still be grippy), but this usually means that someone, somewhere else is skiing a bunch of wind-deposited loveliness.

Wind-Buff, Cream Cheese: Very dense, often a little wet, usually wind-affected snow that may only let your skis sink a few inches into it, but it’s smooth and super rippable. Buttery, cream-cheese snow makes for a plush ride while also making it easy to tell exactly what your skis are doing. Finding and skiing creamy, buttery wind-buff is so good and fun, it can almost make deep ass pow seem overrated.

Skiing / Turn Styles

Jib / Jibby: To get flippy and / or spinny. A “jib ski” is one that makes hitting jumps and throwing spins and tricks around the mountain easier. Generally this involves a more relaxed, flowy style of skiing that uses the ski’s flex to smear around on and pop off of terrain features. A jump on the side of the run that presents a tree to tap in the air makes for a good “jib.” Boring skiers like to complain about “jibbers,” perhaps out of jealousy since they seem to be having so much fun.

Freestyle / A “freestyle-oriented approach to terrain”: You’re not into nuking down the mountain making big turns and getting back to the lift as fast as possible. You’re looking for cat tracks to launch off, jumps to hit on the sides of runs, cliffs and cornices to spin off of – you have a more freestyle-minded approach to the mountain. “Jib” is in your vocabulary.

Glossary of Skiing Terms, Blister Gear Review
Blister Reviewer Alex Adams. (photo by Cy Whitling)

Skiing Switch: Skiing backward. (Hopefully you meant to be skiing backward.)

Slarve / Drift / Surf: You’re flying down the mountain in soft, deep pow, laying over a turn and then you roll your ankles down the fall line, letting your skis break free in a long, controlled power slide. Though the term originally applied to skiing big lines in pow, it can be done in firmer, smooth conditions too, or even on a groomer.

Directional: A directional skier is someone who never skis switch and rarely makes slash turns. They ski with a forward, more race-inspired stance and drive their skis through their turns. A directional ski is one that supports or encourages this style of skiing.

Active / Dynamic Style: When we talk about a “dynamic” or “active” style, we’re basically talking about skiing with more finesse than brute force. A “dynamic” style typically means you ski “lighter on your feet” — rather than skiing straight through rough snow, you tend to find lines that let you avoid big impacts by making lots of quick adjustments mid-line. You tend to get your skis in the air often, whether that be on jumps or just when skiing through variable terrain (e.g., moguls, trees, steeps). A less dynamic style will often mean you tend to keep your skis planted on the snow and won’t be making as many minute, quick adjustments. As a result, people who do not ski very dynamically tend to generally prefer heavier skis that do a better job of blasting through everything and muting out harsh impacts. Dynamic / active skiers tend to prefer skis with more energy or pop and that are often a bit lighter since they make it easier to make quick adjustments, and if you’re skiing with an active style, you won’t need quite as damp and stable of a ski.

A Few Terms Related To Ski Design and Materials

“50/50”: A term we use to describe products designed for both backcountry ski touring and lift-accessed, inbounds skiing. “50/50” products are generally lighter than inbounds-specific or “alpine” products, and heavier than dedicated touring products.

Swing Weight: How heavy / sluggish or light / quick a given ski feels, especially at its tips. A ski with a high swing weight will be more difficult to flick around from your ankles, which is most noticeable in the air or when skiing tight trees, steeps, and mogul runs. Skis with heavily tapered tips typically have “low” swing weights because the widest (and heaviest) point on the ski is moved closer to the middle of the ski.

Taper (Tip / Tail Shape): When the widest point of a ski’s tip or tail is drawn closer to the center of the ski, and the material beyond it is “tapered” in toward the end of the ski.

Titanal: Some ski companies call it “Metal,” and the ones with the more aggressive marketing departments mistakenly call it “Ti” or “Titanium.” It’s actually an aluminum alloy used in the layups of some skis — you know, the ones that say they have “metal” or “titanium” in them. (Props to those companies that just call titanal … titanal.)

“Rocker” Terminology: For more about Splay, Rocker Lines, Traditional Camber, Reverse Camber, etc., see our Rocker 101 article.

Power Transfer (in regard to ski bindings): How efficiently movements — especially smaller ones — transfer from the boot, to the binding, to the ski. For example, poor power transfer can lead to a vague feeling through the tail of the ski when breaking it out of a carve in a skidding maneuver. On the other hand, excellent power transfer can lead to a more precise and connected feeling when initiating a carved turn.

18 comments on “Glossary – Snowsports”

  1. One of my favorite snow conditions is the “florist foam”, that low density but still firm snow that you can edge in well but it isn’t grabby. Mmmmm.

    A few that didn’t make the list:
    -Dust on crust
    -Ice (and it’s variations, blue to brown to white)

  2. This is great. While it’s not exactly stuff for a glossary, I’ve always wondered exactly what you guys meant by “fast” and “steep” etc. in objective terms. Do you mean “world cup downhill fast” like 80mph? It would be great to know.



    • Hi, Oliver – “fast” and “steep” are pretty context-specific. So skiing “fast” in tight trees is quite different than laying down “fast” GS turns on a wide open groomer. One relative way to think of it, perhaps, is that “fast skiing” – whether in tight trees or down open groomers – means that you aren’t scrubbing much (or any) speed through turns — you’re keeping your speed or accelerating, as opposed to using your turns to control speed or scrub speed. In my reviews, at least, when I talk about a ski working well or not well at “moderate speeds.” So that doesn’t provide your objective definition, but hopefully helpful?

      “Steep” is also relative, but hopefully makes sense when used in the context of a specific review. But it also is a bit conditions-specific – a “steep” icy groomer is almost certainly not as steep as the “steep” tree skiing in Taos’s West Basin, but both distinct situations put significant demands on the ski and on the skier, and the faster you’re skiing, the less margin for error there is. As a generalization, I tend to think of Copper Mountain (CO) as a fun not-steep mountain.

  3. Chalky
    A firm surface that skilled carvers can really bite into yet less serious sliders frown upon and complain about icy conditions.

  4. Just did the last two days of the season at Turoa Ski area Mt Ruapehu NZ. The last day began lazily watching the rugby World Cup then up the lifts to find most of the on-piste areas unworked from the day before so refrozen piles of slush with scraped icy patches between I called it non-groomers. Back to the cafe for another coffee and waited for it to soften then we started going wide and down skinning back out then in the afternoon wide and up for some magnificent runs in what I call icecream….rain-groomed smooth spring snow which has been frozen and the top 2-10 cm melts during the day …like cream cheese icecream can make pow seem a little overrated…back to the beach for summer now…Cheers Clive

  5. Is “schmear” the same as “slarve”? Also, if not too much trouble, it might be helpful to add definitions of “butter” and other common freestyle moves just as a complete, central source for those new to the terrain park. Thanks.

    • I beg to differ, skidding back in the day was a hockey stop on hardpack. Twisting those bad boys across in powder ended up with the skier down.

      New school funshapes are a new game.

  6. I’ve been wondering about “tip taper” (as opposed to taper from tip to tail). Are there advantages beyond reduced swing weight? Does it make a ski less hooky in powder? Does it make a ski prone to deflection? Also wondering what deflection is. Is it the reverse portion of the sidecut forcing the ski to go the “wrong” way? I’ve never skied a tip-tapered model, and I’m curious.

    • By and large, if you remain on the piste tip taper means nothing and you will never feel the difference.

      OTOH if you’re an off piste skier then the rocker shape with tip taper puts the wide spot closer to the forward contact point where it engages in a carve without hooking the tip on the mank, or chop. This makes pivoting easier and the tips slice easier under the snow with less hooking.

      A dramatic taper is not necessarily a good thing when on crusty punchy layers as it penetrates that faster and gets you hung up underneath the crust.

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